Chicken Mites & Lice: How To Treat And Prevent Chicken Mites & Lice

Chicken Mites & Lice: How To Treat And Prevent Chicken Mites & Lice

Chicken mites and lice can literally suck the life out of your hens.

 

 

They’re pests that can cause a lot of health issues with your chickens, and should be gotten rid of as fast as possible.

 

In today’s podcast, we talk about how to treat and prevent chicken mites and lice.

 

 

You’ll learn:

  • Tell-tale signs your birds have mites and lice
  • Natural solutions to vanquish these tiny foes
  • The critical time of the day to treat your chickens
  •  How to make sure egg production doesn’t slow down

 

LIKE THIS PODCAST? HERE’S ALL OF THEM

 

 

Links we discuss:

Where to buy diatomaceous earth

Where to buy my book Chickens: Naturally Raising A Sustainable Flock

Where to buy neem oil

Where to buy wormwood

Where to buy garlic juice

 

 

Transcript:

Hi there, and welcome to session 29 of What the Cluck?!, a podcast devoted to keeping chickens for fun and self-sufficiency.

 

By the end of this episode, you’ll know how to recognize and deal with chicken mites and lice, as well as how to rid your hens of these nasty bugs.

 

So, first lets talk about lice and chicken mites, what they are, and why chicken mites and lice infect hens in the first place.

 

And mites aren’t anything to be taken lightly.

 

They’re blood suckers, and in extreme cases, they can actually kill your chicken, so if you find mites and lice on your hens, you definitely want to treat them.

 

At the very least, chicken mites might cause your hens to slow down their rate of egg laying, or just stop laying altogether – not good stuff.

 

So, what are chicken mites?

 

Mites are tiny insects that like to visit your chicken’s feathers, and they feed off the blood of your hens and roosters.

 

Similarly, lice like to bite chicken flesh, but they differ from mites because they’re slightly larger, and they’re white, while chicken mites are either red or black.  I’ve seen the bugs, particularly lice, they seem to be easier for me to see because of their color.

 

It might take a few minutes before you see either mites or lice.

 

While you might be able to see the chicken mites or lice, especially around the ears or eyes, or around the vent, or in their arm pits, meaning where the wings meet their torso, you can diagnose chicken mites easier by secondary issues, such as loss of feathers, or excessive preening.

 

The loss of feathers will look similar to the damage a rooster can do by mating. You might see patches of open skin, or even raw or red skin.

 

chicken mites and lice

Red skin caused by mites on a rooster’s vent

 

Chicken mites especially are nocturnal, and will jump from your hen to inanimate objects, such as a nesting box or a crevice in the coop during the day to hide, then hop back on your hen at night.

 

Some will stay on your hen all the time too, particularly lice, when I’ve seen lice, it’s been during the day.

 

Chicken mites and lice can jump from bird to bird, as well.

 

Now, as an aside, your chicken can also get mites on their legs, these are called scaly leg mites, and I’ve combatted this a time or two. You know a chicken has scaly leg mites if you start to see the scales on their legs lift up.

 

chicken mites and lice on legs

Scaly leg mites on a rooster

 

That happens because the waste from the mites starts to build up under the scales, causing them to lift.

 

Okay, so now that we know what chicken mites and lice are, and why they’re not such a good thing for your chicken, let’s talk about how to treat them.

 

You can use a chemical treatment, kind of like a flea dip to treat chicken mites and lice, and in extreme cases, this might be a good way to go, just to get rid of them before they literally suck the life out of your chicken.

 

But, let’s assume your mite infestation is relatively minor, meaning you can treat it naturally. You can also use these ideas to help prevent chicken mites and lice.

 

Diatomaceous earth

First on our list of chicken mite and lice treatments is diatomaceous earth. For chicken flocks, DE has a lot of natural uses, but it does come with a caveat, which we’ll also discuss.

 

Now, if you’ve owned hens and roosters for any length of time, you probably have heard diatomaceous earth thrown around as a cure for this and that, and we’ll get into its uses and benefits in this podcast.

 

It’s also a little bit of a controversial subject, and we’ll talk about that too.

 

So, what is diatomaceous earth?

 

Diatomaceous earth is the fossilized shells of diatoms, which are prehistoric aquatic algae. These fossilized diatoms are then crushed, making a powdery substance.

 

READ NEXT: DIATOMACEOUS EARTH & CHICKENS: WHAT’S THE DEAL?

 

DE is also comprised of silica, clay minerals, and iron oxide.

 

You can find diatomaceous earth in any feed store or on Amazon. You can find it on Amazon at TheFrugalChicken.com/DE and I’ll put a link in the show notes as well.

 

Now, when it comes to DE, there’s food grade, and then there’s everything else. You always want to offer food grade diatomaceous earth to your chicken flock, the other stuff might harm them, and it’s only construction grade.

 

There’s a lot of difference in terms of purity, so just make sure you’re buying food grade, and you’ll know based on the label.

 

If you buy DE at a feed store, in all likelihood, it’s food grade, but just check the label to be sure.

 

Even though your chicken is just going to bathe in it, they will likely sample it as well, because they always do, and you don’t want them eating anything questionable.

 

So, diatomaceous earth is controversial and that’s because it’s a powder. Chickens have delicate respiratory systems, and there’s some concern out there that the DE will cause your hens to have respiratory issues.

 

There’s also some concern that DE is not proven to reduce parasites, making the risks outweigh the benefits.

 

I don’t agree with this assessment. In several scientifically-sound studies, DE has been shown to be effective in controlling chicken mites and lice.

 

In one study which was run by the University of California Riverside, birds were given a dust bath of sand and diatomaceous earth. These hens showed a huge reduction in the amount of chicken mites and lice after just seven days.

 

The study about chicken mites was published in industry magazines, so it was peer reviewed, and all that, so you can feel pretty comfortable that the test was a real one, and done according to established scientific principles.

 

Now, the way that DE works is while it’s a powder, the crushed diatoms are very sharp, so they penetrate the exoskeletons of the chicken mites, which eventually causes them to die.

 

DE takes longer to work than chemical solutions, so if your chicken has a bad mite infestation, that’s why DE might not be the best solution.

 

Now part of the reason DE is controversial is because although it’s proven effective against mites and lice, there’s not conclusive evidence it works against internal parasites.

 

We know it isn’t likely to do anything bad, and the bottom line is that if your chicken is bathing in it, chances are they’ll sample it too. They’re curious creatures like that.

 

So, whether it’s effective or not, they’re likely getting it anyway.

 

The easiest way to incorporate DE into your coop is by offering a dust box with a diatomaceous earth/sand or dirt mix. There’s really no formula for how much of either to offer, so I go with a 1:1 ratio. 

 

If you plan to offer your DE bath in a run, you will need to remove it when it rains, otherwise you’ll be left with a gloppy mess.

 

 

Wood Ash

So similar to diatomaceous earth, you can use wood ash to treat hens with chicken mites, but I would just it in tandem with DE, and not necessarily alone.

 

Wood ash by itself has the potential to be caustic, but mixing it with another substance is fine, and at any rate, just using wood ash to treat mites is not as effective as using it with something like DE, which works both in the short and long term.

 

Now, for clarification, what is wood ash? Wood ash is the residue from burning wood, and if you’re going to make wood ash specifically for your chicken to bathe in, use wood that hasn’t been treated with chemicals in any way.

 

Make sure it’s cool before you give it to your hens to roll in.

 

Steer clear of ash that’s made from any other substance besides wood. It’s not the same thing, and it won’t be as effective and it might harm your chicken.

 

Wood ash is between 25 and 45 percent calcium carbonate.

 

While there is some cause for concern that wood ash will be caustic, if used lightly, it should be fine since less than 10 percent is potash, which is the potentially caustic substance in it.

 

So, wood ash works against chicken mites and lice because it smothers them.

 

Wood ash has another benefit, and that is as a supplement for your hens.

 

Now, wood ash will also contain bits of charcoal and charred wood, which has health benefits for your chicken flock. They’ll probably eat bits of it, and that’s a good thing.

 

That being said, wood ash is not a good substitute for calcium supplements like oyster shells.

 

Although it’s largely calcium carbonate, which is the same thing egg shells are made of, a study done on broilers showed that the chicks didn’t get enough calcium from it to grow correctly.

 

Although it’s fine if your hens eat it, you’re better off offering them a different source of calcium.

 

Wood ash is not proven as effective as DE in treating chicken mites and lice, but you can use it in tandem with DE.

 

Garlic

Now, the next thing you can use to treat and prevent chicken mites and lice is garlic.

 

We’ve talked in the past about using garlic for internal parasites, but today we’ll talk about it for external parasites like chicken mites and lice.

 

You can feed crushed garlic to your hens, but for mites, you’re better off using it externally.

 

So, let’s talk a bit about why garlic is so good to deter and get rid of mites and lice.

 

Garlic produces a substance called allicin, which is an oily, yellowish liquid that makes garlic smell like garlic.

 

When a fresh garlic clove is chopped or crushed, allicin is produced, and it’s the plant’s natural defense mechanism.

 

There’s a whole scientific process that goes on involving enzymes converting, but for the sake of this discussion, this is the basic information you need to know.

 

Studies have shown that allicin exhibits some pretty useful properties, and is a effective antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiprotozoal.

 

Now, alllicin has shown at very high levels to be toxic, it can destroy intestinal cells but in animal studies, it took a whole lot of allicin to accomplish that.

 

READ NEXT: 7 HERBS TO BOOST YOUR HEN’S HEALTH

 

You chicken is very unlikely to consume enough garlic to cause a problem.

 

Because it’s so good at vanquishing pathogens, allicin is being studied, and is showing promise in fighting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

 

It’s also been shown to be a potent antivirus, and in one placebo-controlled study, researchers found that a daily supplement containing purified allicin helped people reduce the risk of catching a cold by 64 percent, while their symptoms subsided 70 percent faster.

 

The patients were also less likely to develop more than one cold, according to the study. 

 

Now, getting back to hens and roosters, one way to use garlic to combat chicken mites and lice is to create a topical spray using the juice from crushed garlic.

 

You can also use herbs in the spray, for example, mint is a good option.

 

Mint repels parasites like chicken mites, so to include it, simply boil water, then allow the mint to steep in it for a while until a strong tea is made. Then allow it to cool, and mix in the garlic juice.

 

You can also crush garlic and allow it to steep in the mint tea for a few days, to release more of the garlic’s essential oils.

 

Then spray a chicken with the mixture. Offer your chicken flock oregano to give them an immune boost to replace whatever nutrients the mites might have zapped from them.

 

One herb that might repel chicken mites is the bitter herb wormwood. It’s useful against internal parasites, and it might help repel external ones like mites because of its bitter nature.

 

Treating the coop

Now, if your flock has mites, remember that you’ll want to treat their coop as well, since chicken mites can jump from your hens and hide in crevices, etc.

 

You can sprinkle some diatomaceous earth in there, if you do that, make sure your flock isn’t in the coop so they don’t inhale it.

 

Another option is to power wash your coop using water mixed with an orange vinegar mixture to get rid of chicken mites and lice that threaten your flock.

 

Citrus soaked in vinegar makes an extremely powerful solution.

 

Just like the diatomaceous, earth, if you spray a homemade citrus cleaner in your coop, make sure your birds aren’t in the coop.

 

The essential oils from the oranges are very powerful, and might overwhelm them. Let the coop air dry for a few hours before putting them back in it.

 

Another option is to make a spray with neem oil, which repels chicken mites. You can mix it with water, but be sure to shake before spraying to mix everything back together.

 

While chicken mites won’t infest your body, you can still carry them around, so if you handle your hens to treat them, make sure to wash yourself and your clothes in hot water.

 

Also be sure to practice good biosecurity, and scrub your shoes in a bleach or citrus vinegar solution so you don’t re-infect your flock.

 

Now we talked a bit in the beginning about scaly leg mites. The garlic spray might help to treat them.

 

Some people use vasoline to treat them, the vasoline smothers them, but I like using honey. The honey will also smother them, but it will also treat any bites that might become infected.

 

Obviously, you can’t dunk your whole chicken in honey, so you can’t treat the entire hen with it, but you can at least rub it on a leg infested with mites.

 

Preventing chicken mites and lice

Now, to prevent chicken mites and lice, you can do that naturally using any of the remedies we discussed already.

 

Unlike traditional western medication, if you use natural methods as a preventative, you won’t run the same risks.

 

So, you can give your hens diatomaceous earth and wood ash to bathe in whenever you  want, and you should actually do that fairly religiously to prevent chicken mites, and you can clean their coop, and spray them with garlic spray as a preventative.

 

Now, here’s a pro tip I want to share with you.

 

To treat a chicken, whether they have an active infection or you just want to nip any problems in the bud, it’s best to try to grab your chicken at night when they’re naturally quieter.

 

It’s easy to just slip into your coop and grab a hen than it is to try to chase them down during the day.

 

So, that’s this week’s podcast, and I hope it gives you some idea of how to prevent and get rid of chicken mites and lice.

 

Now, if you’re interested in learning how to raise chickens naturally, and want some extra help, I actually have a book available on Amazon which can help you get started.

 

The book is called Chickens: Naturally Raising A Sustainable Flock, and if you’re interested in raising chickens naturally, then this book is for you.

 

It’s a 50 page ebook all about how to naturally raise a sustainable flock of chickens. You can check it out at TheFrugalChicken.com/chickenbook.

 

Thanks for listening to this episode of What The Cluck?! and I’ll see you next time!

READ NEXT: CHICKEN ILLNESSES YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT

I’d like to hear from you!

Have you ever dealt with chicken mites and/or lice? What did you use to treat them? Leave a comment below!




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What To Do In Your Coop In August

What To Do In Your Coop In August

It’s August – and there’s plenty you can do in your coop to keep your hens healthy!

 

It’s almost Back To School season and the holidays are fast approaching – now is the time to prepare for fall, and at a minimum, make decisions you can implement later that’ll keep your backyard chickens healthy and happy throughout the cooler months.

 

August is also a time to be extra vigilant about the heat!

 

Here’s what to do in your coop in August!

 

What to do in your backyard chicken coop in August

Keep making sure your hens are cool with these tips here. 

You can also add a window if things are still blistering hot.

 

Start preparing for molting

Chickens don’t always start in August but some do, and its best to be prepared. Chickens start molting in the fall as the days get shorter.

 

Add extra protein to their feed such as mealworms, black soldier fly larvae, or Fluffiest Feathers Ever!

 

Think about whether your coop needs any adjustments before cold weather arrives, school begins, and the holiday season approaches.

Does it need any changes or additions to keep your hens warm and out of bad weather during winter? Are there leaks that can become a problem during a freezing rain, or even rain in cooler temps?

 

Any areas for predators to get into? As cool weather arrives and food is scarce, your flock becomes an even bigger target.

 

Make sure your chickens have access to a good dust bath.

Consider adding diatomaceous earth or an herbal blend like MitesBGone to it so they’re mite-free.

 

Add fall decor & boredom busters to your coop

An herbal wreath to the coop door will look cute, or if you have access to pumpkins, try making a fall planter.

Looking for a cute fall decoration for your chicken coop? Make a vase out of pumpkins! (Hint: It's also super nutritious for your hens!)

You can also hang apple slices (without the seeds – they’re poisonous), herbs from your garden, or other goodies in their run to reduce boredom.

 

If it’s still hot, treat your flock to some frozen suet cakes!

 

Recycle waste from your vegetable garden in your coop

Your hens will love the additional treats! Keep dried beans, potato skins, apple seeds, and stones from fruit out of the coop.

 

Some people add a compost pile to their run for the hens to help turn over – it’s up to you whether this works for your flock.

 

But be sure to clean your coop weekly!

You’ll want to reduce manure and ammonia load (from their waste) as the days continue to be hot.

Bugs Bugging Your Pets? Here’s 3 All Natural Essential Oils You Can Use To Keep Bugs At Bay!

Bugs Bugging Your Pets? Here’s 3 All Natural Essential Oils You Can Use To Keep Bugs At Bay!

Today, I’m going to show you how you can use essential oils to prevent and deter insects that can bother your pets.

 

With some notable exceptions (which we’ll talk about below), essential oils are safe to use on and around your pets when diluted with a carrier oil, such as coconut oil (on large animals, I’ve been able to put them directly on depending on the situation.)

 

Naturally, when using oils, you want to remember safety first – when in doubt, dilute. Oils are powerful stuff!

 

In this article, we’re going to talk about keeping pet-annoying insects at bay, including:

 

  • Fleas
  • Mites
  • Ticks

 

We’ll cover using oils with dogs, chickens, and large animals.

 

A word about cats: Certain oils, when used in large quantities, can harm our feline friends, so we won’t be including cats in our discussion today. Citrus oils, in particular, are known to cause problems with feline livers, preventing them from functioning correctly.

 

We’ve diffused citrus oils (bergamot, orange) around our two cats a couple times a week, and always give the kitties a chance to leave the room. Our cats have been fine, but I would hesitate to diffuse oils consistently in a closed room with our cats, and I would not personally use citrus oils directly on them either.

 

I recommend you speak to a knowledgeable vet before using any essential oils on your cats.

 

Now, on to the bugs we’ll eliminate today!

 

Get Rid Of Bugs That Bother Your Pets

 

When it comes to fighting bugs and getting rid of bug itchies, lavender essential oil is your best bet. It counters all the insects we’ll discuss, and it’s soothing enough to use. Lavender also promotes healthy skin, so you can use it topically on your pets (diluted with coconut oil).

 

To prevent insects like fleas in your home, you can diffuse lavender as well – and as a bonus, it’ll make your house smell nice (and help you destress….or help your kids stop climbing the walls).

 

Fleas

When someone asks me about preventing insects on their pets with oils, they’re usually thinking of fleas.

 

One summer, we had a TERRIBLE flea infestation in our home. I cannot say how it started….but it started.

 

Lavender was my go to – and after I constantly started diffusing it, lo and behold our infestation stopped. Immediately. What a relief!

 

Preventative Spray

If you want to an all-natural preventative spray you can use regularly on your pets (particularly dogs), then go grab your favorite spray bottle, and fill it with water.

 

Add 2-3 drops of your favorite lavender essential oil (keeping purity in mind  – DON’T buy these on Amazon. Go with an established brand so you know you’re putting only lavender oil on your pet).

 

Shake before using and carefully spray your pet. Avoid eyes, nose, and ears.

 

You can also use this spray on pet beds and blankets. Allow bedding to air dry so your pet doesn’t get the oils in their eyes or noses.

 

Homemade Flea Collar

Commercial flea collars are full of chemicals….so you might not be so crazy about using them on your pets. You CAN make your own all-natural flea collars with oils, though!

 

To make an all-natural flea collar, grab a clean bandana and add 5 drops of oil evenly spread throughout the cloth. Tie the bandana around your dog to prevent fleas. Re-apply the lavender oil every couple of days as needed.

 

Flea Dip

If things have gotten bad enough, you’ll probably want to give your pet a good old fashioned flea dip.  To make a homemade flea dip, you’ll need:

  • Water
  • 1 teaspoon castile soap
  • 2 drops lavender oil

 

Fill your tub with water (I go for “just barely warm” water so I don’t accidentally scald my pets). Add in 2 drops of oil, making sure to keep your pet’s face out of the water. If you don’t think this is possible, then leave the oil out, and use the all-natural preventative bandana after your pet is dry.

 

Rub in the castile soap, making sure to thoroughly coat your pet. Let sit for a couple minutes, if your pet will allow it. You will probably start to see fleas emerging. It’s a slightly-disgusting-but-satisfying feeling.

 

Hose off the castile soap/lavender water mixture. Dry your pet, and use the all-natural flea collar bandana above to prevent fleas from returning.

 

You can also use cedarwood essential oil in addition to or instead of lavender.

 

Mites

Mites are no good for any animal. We once were given a rabbit with such a bad mite infestation in his ears, he could not walk properly (the infection was giving him vertigo). Since then, I try to stay up-to-date on preventing mites. On our farm, we’ve used oils to prevent fleas on dogs, rabbits, and chickens.

 

Dogs

For dogs, lavender oil is a good option (see fleas above).

 

Backyard chickens

To prevent mites in your chicken coop, a peppermint oil coop spray is ideal. To make the peppermint oil coop spray, grab your favorite spray bottle and fill it with 8 oz WHITE vinegar.

 

Add 5-10 drops of peppermint essential oil, and spray liberally around the coop (making sure to get all nooks and crannies). Make sure your flock is out of the area (the oils are safe, but better safe than sorry). You can read more about using peppermint oil in your coop here.

 

For mites ON your chickens, diatomaceous earth is my go-to. You can read about it here. If you want to use oils instead of DE, 1 drop of peppermint diluted in 4 tablespoons coconut oil is my go-to to promote healthy skin. Apply to the area of concern 2-3 times a day, or as needed.

 

Rabbits

For our rabbits that have mite infestations in their ears, we carefully clean the ears so they’re free of build up. We then follow up with 1 drop of lavender diluted in 4 tablespoons of coconut oil (melt the oil then add the drop of lavender).

 

Rub it on the flesh inside the ear, but only the upper portion – NOT inside the ear. Keep the ears clean regularly, and reapply the coconut/lavender oil.

 

Ticks

Once your pets have ticks, you just have to pull them out. To clean the wound, you can use 1 drop oregano oil mixed with 1 tablespoon coconut oil and apply after washing the wound well.

 

To make an all-natural repellent spray, mix 3 drops of lavender in 8 oz of water. Spray liberally before your pet goes outside, making sure to avoid the face, eyes, ears, and nose. You can also use cedarwood.

 

The CDC has even said that these oils are safe essential oils to repel certain insects, ticks included.

Eye Worms, Letting Chicks Outdoors, Getting Rid Of Mites, Fertile Grocery Store Eggs, & Greek Yogurt [Podcast]

Eye Worms, Letting Chicks Outdoors, Getting Rid Of Mites, Fertile Grocery Store Eggs, & Greek Yogurt [Podcast]

Eye worms and mites are nasty parasites chickens can get, and they’ll totally gross you out.

 

They can be dangerous to your chicken’s health, so in this podcast, we talk about them as well as how to safely get rid of them.

 

But those aren’t the only questions you guys had this week!

 

We also talk about putting chicks outdoors, greek yogurt, and grocery store eggs.

 

You’ll learn:

 

  • What eye worms are and how to avoid them
  • How (and when) to let chicks get used to the great outdoors safely
  • Why mites will kill egg production, and natural, non-toxic ways to say goodbye to them
  • Whether grocery store eggs are fertile
  • How to safely feed Greek yogurt to your flock

Links we discuss:

Medications your vet can administer for eye worms

 

Transcript

Hi there, and welcome to session 28 of What the Cluck?!, a podcast devoted to keeping chickens for fun and self-sufficiency. I’m Maat from FrugalChicken, and today is the day that I take your questions.

 

Now this week, we have a diverse amount of questions, but the thing they’re all common questions that I’ve had listeners ask. I think you’ll be blown away by some of the interesting information you’ll learn today.

 

A million thanks to everyone who submitted, and due to time limitations, I can only take 5 questions, but if your question isn’t answered today, rest assured I’ve taken note, and will try to answer them in next Tuesday’s episode.

 

Just as a reminder, if you would like to submit a question, you can shoot me an email at [email protected] or contact me over social media. You can find me on Facebook at TheFrugalChicken.com/Facebook.

 

 

 

When can I put chicks outside?

There’s a few considerations to make here, such as the age of your chickens and the temperature outside. You should also consider whether predators are an issue in your area, as well as whether you use something like a chicken tractor.

 

The best advice is to permanently put your chickens outside when they are fully feathered and better able to withstand the elements.

 

Feathers provide insulation from extreme heat and cold, and in the summer, they keep your chickens cool, and in the winter, they provide warmth by fluffing up and retaining heat.

 

Until chickens have feathers, they don’t have any ability to regulate their body temperature – that’s why you need to give them a heat lamp from the time they are born until they’re able to stand the ambient temperature in your house or barn.

 

Now, that being said, there’s a couple other considerations.

 

Chickens are fully feathered at around 12 weeks, and personally, I would not throw 12 week old chickens outside in 32 degree weather without some sort of period to get them used to the cold, especially if they’re used to living inside or under a heat lamp.

 

I would allow them to go outside during the day, then bring them in at night until they seem like they’re doing well.

 

Similarly, I would take caution on wet, cold days, and I’ve learned the hard way that young chickens don’t always weather those days so well.

 

You should also remember that young chickens are easy targets for predators, especially bantams because they’re so tiny.

 

If your area has a lot of predators, consider a chicken tractor instead of free ranging, and take special care at night to make sure they’re secure in their coop.

 

A lot of times, young pullets and roosters don’t start roosting until they’re well into 16 weeks old. Until then, in my experience, they prefer to sit on the ground, in large groups.

 

This makes them a really easy target for predators. Sometimes, putting them with older chickens, who will roost and will show the young ones what to do, is a good idea.

 

Now, during hot weather, you can put unfeathered chicks outside. After all, before we started raising chickens indoors, they were all born outdoors.

 

Using a chicken tractor is best to protect them from predators as well as getting lost or stuck in something, I have had that happen even when they were protected, so it is a cause for concern.

 

Personally, I would wait until a hot day, at least 85 degrees or so, before putting them outside. Make sure they have shade or a way to get out of the sun, and plenty of water and feed.

 

Until chickens are 12 weeks old, you want them to have free access to feed, and outside is no exception.

 

Putting young chicks outside is not necessarily a bad thing. They’ll get exposed to dirt, and build up immunities, and generally enjoy being a chicken.

 

You will have to provide chick grit to help them grind up anything they eat outside, and consider a probiotic to help them establish good gut flora in case they pick up any parasites or bacteria that might cause an issue.

 

 

What is an eye worm

Eye worms are a type of roundworm.

 

You find eye worms in the eye, hence their common name, and, according to the University of Florida, you’ll find them under the nictitating (nict-tit-tate-ing) membrane of the eye, and in the naso-lachrymal (lak-ruh-muhl) duct, which is their tear duct.

 

So, just for clarification, the nictitating membrane of the eye is the third eye lid that chickens have, and it helps them protect the eye and keep stuff out of it, like dust, dander, dirt, etc.

 

If you want to see the third eye lid in your chickens, a good time for that is when they’re dust bathing.

 

According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, eye worms are more of a problem in tropical and subtropical climates, and the host animal is actually cockroaches.

 

So, symptoms of eye worm include scratching of the eyes, and in extreme cases, blindness. It also can cause inflammation and tearing, and you might find your chicken has a lot of inflammation, for example, their eye might look like it is bulging.

 

So the way your chicken picks up eye worms is interesting.

 

The eggs are laid in the eye, then make it to the the pharynx by the tear duct, there’s a fancy scientific name for that, but we’ll keep things simple here.

 

The eggs then are swallowed, and eventually passed in the feces. They then have to be ingested by the Surinam cockroach, which incubates the eggs until larvae hatch, and become something that can infect your chicken

 

When your chicken eats the infected cockroach, the larvae then migrate up your chicken’s esophagus to the mouth and then through the nasolacrimal duct to the eye, where they then lay eggs, and the cycle continues.  

 

There are other insect species that can host the eye worm, such as beetles, grasshoppers, and also earthworms, but cockroaches are the biggest hosts.

 

According to the University of Florida, the time it takes to complete the cycle can be a few days or up to several weeks.

 

To treat eye worms, the Merck Veterinary Manual suggests using a local anaesthetic and removing the worms manually. The worms are then exposed by lifting the third eye lid, and removed.

 

There’s also medication your vet can administer, and I’ll put a link to the Merck Veterinary Manual in this episodes show notes that you can refer to.

 

To prevent eye worms, which are a species of round worms, your best bet is to keep your chicken’s coop clean and free of moist environments, feces, urine, etc.

 

How do I get rid of mites?

So, there’s a lot of different species of mites that can infect your chickens, but the ones we’re talking about here are red mites, which are a common problem with backyard chickens.

 

If you see tiny red or black spots on your chickens on their vents or around there ears, then they have mites.

 

They particularly like to huddle around a chickens vent, and like tiny vampires, they like to bite and suck your chickens blood.

 

According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, these mites can live up to 7 days, but can lay hundreds of thousands of eggs in those 7 days, so this has the potential to be a real problem with your flock.

 

Although they only live 7 days, they can infect your house for up to 6 months, although their ability to proliferate is slowed down in the winter.

 

Chickens get mites from other chickens, but people can also bring them into the coop if you’ve walked in an infected area. The mites can also live on inanimate objects and jump onto your hens.

 

The mites like to hide in cracks during the day and hop onto hens at night because they’re nocturnal, and like to eat at night.

 

If they’re not treated, then they can prevent your rooster from wanting to mate, and kill egg production in your hens. In extreme cases, it can make young chickens lose weight, and cause anemia and death.

 

There’s chemicals you can use to treat your flock, but today, we’ll talk about natural solutions. Diatomaceous earth has been proven to be useful in treating external parasites.

 

You can carefully apply diatomaceous earth to your hens, or allow them to dust bathe in it. If you apply it yourself, be careful to not do too much at once, since diatomaceous earth, if inhaled, can cause problems with their respiratory systems.

 

If you handle your hens to treat them, be sure to wash yourself and your clothes in hot water, and scrub your shoes in a bleach or citrus vinegar solution, to kill any mites that might be on your person.

 

Power wash your coop using water which can contain soap. Another alternative is to power wash with water mixed with a citrus vinegar solution.

 

Citrus soaked in vinegar makes an extremely powerful solution, and I can tell you from experience it is an excellent cleaner that will wipe out a lot of nasty pathogens.

 

To make it, all you do is grab a quart mason jar, place some orange peels in it, then pour in white vinegar.

 

You want to use white vinegar for this, not apple cider vinegar.

 

Allow it to mix for a week before using. When you spray this in your coop, make sure your chickens aren’t in it because the essential oils might overwhelm them. Let it air dry for a few hours before putting them back in it.

 

Are eggs in the grocery store fertile?

So, the answer to this question depends on some conditions. Generally speaking, the eggs you buy at the grocery store are not fertile.

 

Largely, these eggs come from industrial egg farms that don’t have roosters because they have no economic value.

 

While the eggs themselves are not examined for fertility, they are examined for things like blood spots, lack of yolk, and other irregularities, so the chances of getting an egg that has developed into an embryo are very small.

 

Without cracking open the egg, it’s impossible to tell if they’re fertile or not, although they are developing machinery that can tell us just that. But the bottom line is large egg farms generally do not have roosters, which are necessary to have fertile eggs.

 

Now, I do know of smaller stores that carry eggs from local farms that do have roosters in their flock.

 

In this case, it’s entirely possible you will end up with a fertile egg, and unless the seller examines each egg individually or the eggs are collected daily, then you might end up with a developed embryo.

 

Chances are slim, but still there since a rooster is involved.

 

Now, the question you might be wondering is whether you can incubate grocery store eggs, and the answer is no. If the egg has not been fertilized by a rooster, then the egg will never develop an embryo.

 

But let’s say you buy eggs from the grocery store that came from a local farm.

 

In all likelihood, those eggs won’t hatch either, and that’s because the eggs have been kept in a cold enough temperature that the possibility of the embryo developing after warming up is pretty slim.

 

I’m not going to say its impossible because it’s not, but it’s very unlikely, and you’ll do better to buy guaranteed fertile eggs from a local chicken owner.

 

Would it be alright to give my hens Greek yogurt? 

For the most part, giving chickens yogurt is perfectly fine, but there are some things to watch out for. Yogurt that is just milk, enzymes, and live cultures is best, and you should always stick to unflavored yogurt.

 

Other yogurts out there contain chemicals and other questionable ingredients that you don’t want your chickens eating, and if you don’t want to eat them yourself, then you don’t want your chickens eating it either.

 

While many mass produced products claim to have “natural flavoring” that does not mean something unsavory was added to give it flavor. For example, some natural flavoring derived from beaver anal glands, and personally, I don’t want to eat that.

 

In addition, some yogurts also have preservatives in them that might not be healthy for your hens, and might even harm them.

 

Studies show that a hen’s diet directly effects the quality of her eggs, so sticking with organic yogurt with simple ingredients is best.

 

You will know if the yogurt contains live cultures by looking at the label, and this is the most beneficial part of yogurt for your chicken.

 

Studies show that the beneficial bacteria in fermented products, which is what yogurt is, helps create a healthy digestive system for chickens.

 

In studies, hens fed fermented feed laid better, and their eggs were also larger. Their plumage looked healthier, and they were all around just healthier birds.

 

The best yogurt to give your hens is homemade yogurt, because you know exactly what they’re getting. However, if you don’t want to make your own, then giving them organic yogurt with only simple ingredients is best.

 

So, that’s this week’s podcast, and I hope it gives you some idea of how to successfully get started with chicks.

 

Now, if you’re interested in learning how to raise baby chicks and want some extra help, I actually have a book available on Amazon which can help you get started.

 

The book is called Chickens: Naturally Raising A Sustainable Flock, and if you’re interested in raising chickens naturally, then this book is for you.

 

It’s a 50 page ebook all about how to naturally raise a sustainable flock of chickens. You can check it out at TheFrugalChicken.com/chickenbook.

 

Thanks for listening to this episode of What The Cluck?! and I’ll see you next time!

 

I’d like to hear from you!

Have you ever experienced eye worms or mites? Leave a comment below!